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Crohn's Disease- Pathophysiology and Conventional and Alternative Treatment Options

Crohn's Disease

Table 1: Subcategories of Crohn's Disease

Table 2: Signs and Symptoms of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Risk Factors

Diagnosis

Etiopathogenesis:

    The Genetic Component of Crohn's Disease

    Stress in the Etiology of Crohn's Disease

    Microbial Factors

    Inflammation/Immune Response

    Intestinal Permeability

    Other Abnormalities Contributing to the Etiopathogenesis of Crohn's Disease

Conventional Treatment of Crohn's Disease

Table 5: Conventional Medications and their Mechanisms in Crohn's Disease

Nutrient Deficiences in Crohn's Disease

Table 6: nutrient Deficiencies Associated with Crohn's Disease

Dietary Interventions in Crohn's Disease

Table 7: Diet Therapies Compared to Steroid Medications in Crohn's Disease

Probiotics in the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

Fatty Acids for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

Table 8: A Summary of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Studies in Crohn's Disease

Glutamine

N-acetyl Glucosamine

Remicade Increasing Risk of Cancer

Botanicals in the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Potential Sequelae of Crohn's Disease

References




Table 8. A Summary of Omega-3 Eesential Fatty Acid Studies in Crohn's Disease

Authors Subjects Duration Intervention/Design Dosage Outcome
Tsujikawa et al 20 Crohn's Disease patients 1 month Open trial using diet containing n-3:n-6 ratio of 0.5 Not given Decreased CRP, improved remission rates
Lorenz et al 39 IBD patients (29 Crohn's Disease patients) 7 months Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover of fish oil 1.8 g EPA and 1.3 g DHA daily Decreased inflammatory mediators TXB2 & LTB4, improved morphology, no change in disease activity
Hillier et al 10 IBD patients 12 weeks Open label - fish oil versus olive oil 18 g per day, containing 3.2 g EPA, 2.2 g DHA Decreased inflammatory mediators PGE2, TXB2, & LTB4
Lorenz-Meyer et al 204 Crohn's Disease patients in remission 1 year Fish oil supplementation compared with placebo or low-carbohydrate diet 6 g daily (containing 3.3 g EPA, 1.8 g DHA) No Difference in relapse rate in fish oil vs. placebo
Belluzzi et al 78 Crohn's Disease patients in remission 1 year Double-blind, placebo controlled study of fish oil 4.5 g daily (containing 1.8 g EPA, 0.9 g DHA) 41% fewer relapses in fish oil group; 33% more patients in remission at 1 year
Arslan at al 10 IBD patients (5 Crohn's Disease, 5 Ulcerative Colitis 10 days Open label pilot study of seal oil 30 mL daily (containing 1.8 g EPA, 2.6 g DHA, 1.0 g DPA) Decreased disease activity, decreased joint pain




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